An insured person is a permanent resident of the Republic of Estonia or a person living in Estonia by virtue of a temporary residence permit or by the right of permanent residence, who pays the social tax for himself/herself or for whom the payer of social tax is required to pay social tax. Insured persons are:
- a person working on the basis of an employment contract;
- a public servant;
- a member of the management or supervisory board of a legal entity;
- a person employed on the basis of a contract under the law of obligations;
- a person registred at Estonian Unemployment Insurance Fund;
- a person, who participated in the elimination of the consequences of a nuclear disaster:
- a conscript;
- the non-working spouse of a diplomat or a public servant;
- the curator of a disabled person;
- a person receiving child care allowance;
- a dependant spouse, for whom the government pays social tax;
- a person receiving social allowance.
According to the Health Insurance Act persons for whom no social tax is paid are considered as having equal status to the insured person. The persons having equal status are:
- a pregnant woman;
- a person under 19 years of age;
- a person receiving state pension granted in Estonia;
- an insured person’s dependent spouse, who is no more than 5 years away from attaining the age limit for old-age pension;
- pupils (there are age limits);
- a student, who is permanent resident;
- a person joining with the scheme voluntarily.
The insured person does not need to take the Health Insurance Fund card for attending the doctor in Estonia, it is sufficient to have an identification document with photo. For travelling on the territory of the European Union, one should have the European Health Insurance card or the substitution certificate, which can be applied for from the Health Insurance Fund. The persons who do not intend to visit the member-states of the European Union do not need to apply for the European Health Insurance card.
As from 1 May 2010 instead of that regulation applies European Parliament and Council Regulation (EC) Regulation No. 883/2004 on the coordination of social security systems, which includes amended and updated rules of the old regulation.
The regulation neither set outs which benefits should be paid to a person by one country or another nor establishes the size of pensions and benefits. Countries must ensure that people moving from one member state to another do not find themselves worse off than those who live and work in one member state their whole lives.
Coordination rules are applicable in European Economic Area (EEA) - in all EU Member States, Norway, Liechtenstein, Iceland and Switzerland.
However during the transitional period Regulation No 1408/71 applies still in Norway, Liechtenstein and Iceland. Since 1 April 2012 Regulation 883/2004 is in force only in Switzerland.